LeetCode 322. Coin Change

You are given coins of different denominations and a total amount of money amount. Write a function to compute the fewest number of coins that you need to make up that amount. If that amount of money cannot be made up by any combination of the coins, return -1.

Example 1:
coins = [1, 2, 5], amount = 11
return 3 (11 = 5 + 5 + 1)

Example 2:
coins = [2], amount = 3
return -1.

Note:
You may assume that you have an infinite number of each kind of coin.

LeetCode 377. Combination Sum IV

Given an integer array with all positive numbers and no duplicates, find the number of possible combinations that add up to a positive integer target.

Example:

nums = [1, 2, 3]
target = 4

The possible combination ways are:
(1, 1, 1, 1)
(1, 1, 2)
(1, 2, 1)
(1, 3)
(2, 1, 1)
(2, 2)
(3, 1)

Note that different sequences are counted as different combinations.

Therefore the output is 7.
What if negative numbers are allowed in the given array?
How does it change the problem?
What limitation we need to add to the question to allow negative numbers?

LeetCode 740. Delete and Earn

Given an array nums of integers, you can perform operations on the array.

In each operation, you pick any nums[i] and delete it to earn nums[i] points. After, you must delete every element equal to nums[i] – 1 or nums[i] + 1.

You start with 0 points. Return the maximum number of points you can earn by applying such operations.

Example 1:
Input: nums = [3, 4, 2]
Output: 6
Explanation:
Delete 4 to earn 4 points, consequently 3 is also deleted.
Then, delete 2 to earn 2 points. 6 total points are earned.
Example 2:
Input: nums = [2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4]
Output: 9
Explanation:
Delete 3 to earn 3 points, deleting both 2 and the 4.
Then, delete 3 again to earn 3 points, and 3 again to earn 3 points.
9 total points are earned.
Note:

The length of nums is at most 20000.
Each element nums[i] is an integer in the range [1, 10000].

LeetCode 650. 2 Keys Keyboard

Initially on a notepad only one character ‘A’ is present. You can perform two operations on this notepad for each step:

Copy All: You can copy all the characters present on the notepad (partial copy is not allowed).
Paste: You can paste the characters which are copied last time.
Given a number n. You have to get exactly n ‘A’ on the notepad by performing the minimum number of steps permitted. Output the minimum number of steps to get n ‘A’.

Example 1:
Input: 3
Output: 3
Explanation:
Intitally, we have one character ‘A’.
In step 1, we use Copy All operation.
In step 2, we use Paste operation to get ‘AA’.
In step 3, we use Paste operation to get ‘AAA’.
Note:
The n will be in the range [1, 1000].

LeetCode 746. Min Cost Climbing Stairs

On a staircase, the i-th step has some non-negative cost cost[i] assigned (0 indexed).

Once you pay the cost, you can either climb one or two steps. You need to find minimum cost to reach the top of the floor, and you can either start from the step with index 0, or the step with index 1.

Example 1:
Input: cost = [10, 15, 20]
Output: 15
Explanation: Cheapest is start on cost[1], pay that cost and go to the top.
Example 2:
Input: cost = [1, 100, 1, 1, 1, 100, 1, 1, 100, 1]
Output: 6
Explanation: Cheapest is start on cost[0], and only step on 1s, skipping cost[3].
Note:
cost will have a length in the range [2, 1000].
Every cost[i] will be an integer in the range [0, 999].

LeetCode 553. Optimal Division

Given a list of positive integers, the adjacent integers will perform the float division. For example, [2,3,4] -> 2 / 3 / 4.

However, you can add any number of parenthesis at any position to change the priority of operations. You should find out how to add parenthesis to get the maximum result, and return the corresponding expression in string format. Your expression should NOT contain redundant parenthesis.

Example:
Input: [1000,100,10,2]
Output: “1000/(100/10/2)”
Explanation:
1000/(100/10/2) = 1000/((100/10)/2) = 200
However, the bold parenthesis in “1000/((100/10)/2)” are redundant,
since they don’t influence the operation priority. So you should return “1000/(100/10/2)”.

Other cases:
1000/(100/10)/2 = 50
1000/(100/(10/2)) = 50
1000/100/10/2 = 0.5
1000/100/(10/2) = 2
Note:

The length of the input array is [1, 10].
Elements in the given array will be in range [2, 1000].
There is only one optimal division for each test case.